{"184054":{"id":"184054","parent":"0","time":"1610360470","url":"http:\/\/lilianeheldkhawam.com\/2021\/01\/10\/injecter-du-souffre-dans-la-stratosphere-les-millions-des-gates-en-action-compilation\/","category":"documentaires","title":"Injecter du souffre dans la stratosph\u00e8re. Les millions des Gates en action. Compilation","lead_image_url":"http:\/\/newsnet.fr\/img\/newsnet_184054_1f3ce8.jpg","hub":"newsnet","url-explicit":"injecter-du-souffre-dans-la-stratosphere-les-millions-des-gates-en-action-compilation","admin":"newsnet","views":"39","priority":"3","length":"42064","lang":"","content":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/youtube.com\/watch?v=WR6uSXW-8p4\" target=\"_blank\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-chain\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E youtube\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cblockquote\u003E\u00ab La notion de d\u00e9veloppement durable implique certes des limites. Il ne s'agit pourtant pas de limites absolues mais de celles qu'imposent \u003Cb\u003El'\u00e9tat actuel de nos techniques et de l'organisation sociale\u003C\/b\u003E ainsi que de \u003Cb\u003Ela capacit\u00e9 de la biosph\u00e8re\u003C\/b\u003E de supporter les effets de l'activit\u00e9 humaine.\u00bb\u003Cp\u003ERapport Brudtland sur le \u003Cb\u003E\u003Ci\u003Ed\u00e9veloppement durable\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/b\u003E (1987)\u003C\/blockquote\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ENote LHK: Cette publication est compos\u00e9e de 3 articles. Un de Futura-Science (2021), un autre de Nature, et le 3\u00e8me de The Guardian de 2012 (en anglais, il suffit d'activer la traduction en bas \u00e0 droite. merci). Ne ratez pas la vid\u00e9 de CNBC.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ECe projet d'injection de particules dans l'atmosph\u00e8re est copieusement financ\u00e9 par Bill Gates dans le cadre de programmes h\u00e9berg\u00e9s par l'Universit\u00e9 de Harvard nous est subitement vendu comme \u00e9tant made in China. La r\u00e9alit\u00e9 est qu'il est priv\u00e9, commercial et en d\u00e9veloppement depuis de nombreuses ann\u00e9es. La Chine est peut-\u00eatre un client de M Gates?\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.ladepeche.fr\/2020\/12\/13\/quand-la-chine-ambitionne-de-controler-le-climat-9255069.php\"\u003Eladepeche.fr\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBref, levez vos yeux pendant votre confinement, sachant que le trafic a\u00e9rien commercial a \u00e9norm\u00e9ment chut\u00e9. LHK\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EL'injection de soufre dans l'atmosph\u00e8re va-t-elle nous sauver du r\u00e9chauffement climatique ? Futura-Science\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EPour lutter contre le r\u00e9chauffement climatique, tous les moyens sont bons, estiment certains. Y compris ce qu'ils appellent la g\u00e9oing\u00e9nierie solaire. Mais d'autres soulignent des effets ind\u00e9sirables qui pourraient avoir de lourdes cons\u00e9quences. Slimane Bekki, chercheur au CNRS, nous aide \u00e0 peser le pour et le contre de ce \u00ab plan B \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/lettres-d-informations\"\u003E\u00ab\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E[EN VID\u00c9O] L'histoire du r\u00e9chauffement climatique en 35 secondes En int\u00e9grant graphiquement les mesures de temp\u00e9ratures dans presque tous les pays du Globe entre 1900 et 2016, cette animation montre de fa\u00e7on saisissante l'augmentation du nombre d'\u00ab anomalies de temp\u00e9rature \u00bb, donc des \u00e9carts par rapport \u00e0 une moyenne. On constate qu'en un peu plus d'un si\u00e8cle, la proportion vire au rouge.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cblockquote\u003E\u003Ci\u003E\u00ab Injecter du soufre dans la stratosph\u00e8re permet de rafra\u00eechir la plan\u00e8te. \u003Cb\u003ENous en sommes certains.\u003C\/b\u003E Cela se produit naturellement lors d'\u00e9ruptions volcaniques. Un an environ apr\u00e8s l'\u00e9ruption du Pinatubo (Philippines) en 1991 - qui a inject\u00e9 15-20 Mt de dioxyde de soufre dans la stratosph\u00e8re -, par exemple, nous avons vu les temp\u00e9ratures moyennes mondiales baisser d'environ 0,5 \u00b0C \u00bb\u003C\/i\u003E, nous raconte Slimane Bekki, chercheur au CNRS, en introduction.\u003C\/blockquote\u003E\u003Cp\u003EComment \u00e7a marche ? Rappelons d'abord que la stratosph\u00e8re est une r\u00e9gion de l'\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/definitions\/climatologie-atmosphere-850\"\u003Eatmosph\u00e8re\u003C\/a\u003E qui se situe au-dessus de 8 et 15 kilom\u00e8tres d'altitude ; une r\u00e9gion particuli\u00e8rement stable sur le plan m\u00e9t\u00e9orologique compar\u00e9e \u00e0 la \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/definitions\/climatologie-troposphere-997\"\u003Etroposph\u00e8re\u003C\/a\u003E qui se trouve en dessous, entre la surface de la \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/definitions\/structure-terre-terre-4725\"\u003ETerre\u003C\/a\u003E et la stratosph\u00e8re. Ainsi dans la stratosph\u00e8re, les circulations d'\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/sciences\/definitions\/chimie-air-4452\"\u003Eair\u003C\/a\u003E sont lentes. \u003Ci\u003E\u00ab Le soufre, qui y est inject\u00e9, est oxyd\u00e9 et produit des \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/definitions\/climatologie-aerosol-2505\"\u003Ea\u00e9rosols\u003C\/a\u003E qui y restent parfois pour des ann\u00e9es, alors que, par comparaison, le soufre et les a\u00e9rosols sont rapidement \u00e9limin\u00e9s par les pluies dans la troposph\u00e8re\u003C\/i\u003E, nous fait ainsi remarquer Slimane Bekki. \u003Ci\u003ELes a\u00e9rosols stratosph\u00e9riques jouent ainsi un peu le r\u00f4le d'autant de \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/sciences\/definitions\/physique-miroir-1009\"\u003Emiroirs\u003C\/a\u003E miniatures qui diffusent le \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/dossiers\/meteorologie-meteo-peut-on-controler-climat-1395\/page\/7\"\u003Erayonnement solaire\u003C\/a\u003E, en r\u00e9fl\u00e9chissant une partie vers l'espace. \u00bb\u003C\/i\u003E De quoi refroidir efficacement la plan\u00e8te.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ELe saviez-vous ?\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EDans la cat\u00e9gorie g\u00e9oing\u00e9nierie - ou d'intervention climatique - par gestion du rayonnement solaire, on trouve d'autres technologies comme l'injection de sels marins dans les nuages. Objectif : augmenter la brillance des nuages et donc r\u00e9fl\u00e9chir encore de rayonnement solaire vers l'espace. L'efficacit\u00e9 de la technique reste toutefois incertaine.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ECertains ont aussi envisag\u00e9 de placer en orbite, des structures r\u00e9fl\u00e9chissantes. Mais le d\u00e9fi technologique pos\u00e9 par cette option et son co\u00fbt exorbitant, \u00e0 d\u00e9faut de refroidir la plan\u00e8te, ont refroidi les ardeurs.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EDe prime abord, la technique de \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/definitions\/climatologie-geoingenierie-5457\"\u003Eg\u00e9oing\u00e9nierie\u003C\/a\u003E solaire - ou d'intervention climatique, comme pr\u00e9f\u00e8re l'appeler Slimane Bekki - qui consiste \u00e0 g\u00e9rer le \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/definitions\/climatologie-rayonnement-solaire-13785\"\u003Erayonnement solaire\u003C\/a\u003E qui nous arrive en s'appuyant sur des a\u00e9rosols stratosph\u00e9riques appara\u00eet donc comme la solution miracle au \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/definitions\/changement-climatique-rechauffement-climatique-13827\"\u003Er\u00e9chauffement climatique\u003C\/a\u003E anthropique. Mais \u003Ci\u003E\u00ab il n'en est rien \u00bb\u003C\/i\u003E, nous pr\u00e9vient Slimane Bekki.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cblockquote\u003E\u003Ci\u003E\u00ab Ce que certains qualifient de \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/actualites\/climatologie-geoingenierie-plan-b-parentheses-23293\"\u003Eplan B\u003C\/a\u003E peut tout juste \u00eatre consid\u00e9r\u00e9 comme une mani\u00e8re de gagner du temps. \u00bb\u003C\/i\u003E Car les chercheurs le savent : les effets collat\u00e9raux d'une injection de particules soufr\u00e9es dans la stratosph\u00e8re pourraient, \u003Ci\u003Ein fine\u003C\/i\u003E, s'av\u00e9rer plus n\u00e9fastes encore que le r\u00e9chauffement lui-m\u00eame.\u003C\/blockquote\u003E\u003Cp\u003ELa course contre le r\u00e9chauffement climatique est lanc\u00e9e. La g\u00e9oing\u00e9nierie solaire nous permettra peut-\u00eatre de gagner un peu de temps si les choses devaient finalement \u00e9chapper \u00e0 notre contr\u00f4le. \u00a9 pathdoc, Adobe Stock\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ELes effets ind\u00e9sirables de la g\u00e9oing\u00e9nierie solaire\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EParmi les effets secondaires connus, il y a d'abord la destruction de la \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/definitions\/climatologie-couche-ozone-4411\"\u003Ecouche d'ozone\u003C\/a\u003E li\u00e9e \u00e0 l'augmentation des a\u00e9rosols stratosph\u00e9riques, ph\u00e9nom\u00e8ne d\u00e9j\u00e0 observ\u00e9 apr\u00e8s les grandes \u00e9ruptions volcaniques r\u00e9centes. Et l'augmentation des rayonnements \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/sciences\/definitions\/physique-ultraviolet-1003\"\u003Eultraviolets\u003C\/a\u003E arrivant \u00e0 la surface de la Terre qui l'accompagnerait. Ce n'est \u00e9videmment pas souhaitable. Mais il y a aussi, \u003Ci\u003E\u00ab et peut-\u00eatre m\u00eame surtout, les impacts que l'op\u00e9ration aurait sur le \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/actualites\/climatologie-rechauffement-climatique-accelere-cycle-eau-23469\"\u003Ecycle de l'eau\u003C\/a\u003E et sur les pr\u00e9cipitations\u003C\/i\u003E, souligne le chercheur du CNRS. \u003Ci\u003ELes simulations montrent des modifications s\u00e9v\u00e8res des cycles des \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/definitions\/climatologie-mousson-4402\"\u003Emoussons\u003C\/a\u003E, par exemple. Des moussons qui s'affaiblissent et se d\u00e9placent. Avec potentiellement des cons\u00e9quences sur la vie de deux \u00e0 trois milliards d'individus. Alors m\u00eame que la question de la ressource en eau est aussi sensible que celle de la hausse des temp\u00e9ratures. Aujourd'hui d\u00e9j\u00e0, les modifications du cycle de l'eau induites par le r\u00e9chauffement climatique anthropique accentuent les disparit\u00e9s entre r\u00e9gions s\u00e8ches et r\u00e9gions humides. La g\u00e9oing\u00e9nierie solaire va compliquer la situation. \u00bb\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAinsi r\u00e9gul\u00e9 par g\u00e9oing\u00e9nierie solaire, le \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/definitions\/climatologie-climat-13771\"\u003Eclimat\u003C\/a\u003E conna\u00eetrait donc immanquablement des changements r\u00e9siduels assez forts \u00e0 l'\u00e9chelle r\u00e9gionale. De quoi soulever des questions \u00e9thiques et de gouvernance assez lourdes. \u003Ci\u003E\u00ab \u00c0 qui la d\u00e9cision d'intervenir ainsi sur le climat reviendra-t-elle ? Il faudra sans doute arriver \u00e0 un accord international. Mais il sera difficile \u00e0 trouver. Certains pays peuvent en effet consid\u00e9rer que le r\u00e9chauffement constitue une bonne nouvelle pour eux et bloquer le processus. D'autres, qu'une telle intervention climatique serait catastrophique pour leurs ressources en eau, notamment en lien avec les moussons. \u00bb\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ETout cela, sans parler du fait que la probl\u00e9matique du \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/actualites\/rechauffement-rechauffement-climatique-ca-va-vraiment-mal-arctique-65275\"\u003Er\u00e9chauffement climatique\u003C\/a\u003E ne se limite pas \u00e0 celle de la hausse des temp\u00e9ratures. \u003Ci\u003E\u00ab Continuer \u00e0 \u00e9mettre du CO2, c'est aussi poursuivre l'acidification des oc\u00e9ans et ses effets n\u00e9fastes tels que la disparition des coraux. Aujourd'hui, nous ne savons pas jusqu'o\u00f9 cela peut aller. Mais il appara\u00eet \u00e9vident qu'il n'est pas soutenable de laisser les concentrations de \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/definitions\/climatologie-gaz-effet-serre-5381\"\u003Egaz \u00e0 effet de serre\u003C\/a\u003E dans notre atmosph\u00e8re augmenter. \u00bb\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cblockquote\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/twitter.com\/hashtag\/CLIMAT?src=hash&ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw\"\u003E#CLIMAT\u003C\/a\u003E Les chercheur.e.s craignent que cette baisse des \u00e9missions ne soit passag\u00e8re en raison du ralentissement \u00e9conomique - que les \u00e9missions mondiales de CO2 connaissent un rebond en 2021. Les donn\u00e9es pencheraient pour cette derni\u00e8re option. Mais leur niveau reste incertain. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/t.co\/NTfwPNFaEn\"\u003Epic.twitter.com\/NTfwPNFaEn\u003C\/a\u003E- P. Saint-Julien (\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-arobase\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003Ejosephine_pstj) \u003Ca onclick=\"SaveJ('popup_app__3_twit_call_1337294448275894275_tweet');\" class=\"txtx\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-tw\" style=\"font-size:16px;\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E December 11, 2020\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/blockquote\u003E\u003Cp\u003ENe pas perdre l'essentiel de vue\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIntervenir sur le climat en injectant du soufre dans la stratosph\u00e8re pourrait pourtant nous d\u00e9tourner dangereusement de cet objectif primordial. Et \u003Ci\u003E\u00ab avec l'augmentation des \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/sciences\/definitions\/physique-emission-389\"\u003E\u00e9missions\u003C\/a\u003E de CO2, nous devrons injecter de plus en plus de soufre dans la stratosph\u00e8re pour esp\u00e9rer contrecarrer la tendance au r\u00e9chauffement. Or plus nous injecterons de particules, moins nous pourrons nous arr\u00eater \u00bb\u003C\/i\u003E, pr\u00e9vient Slimane Bekki. Sous peine de subir ce que les chercheurs appellent un rattrapage climatique de plus en plus violent. \u003Ci\u003E\u00ab Un arr\u00eat brutal des injections pourrait nous faire prendre 2 \u00e0 3 \u00b0C en une d\u00e9cennie seulement. \u00bb\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EUn risque d'autant plus difficile \u00e0 envisager que de r\u00e9cents travaux de chercheurs am\u00e9ricains sugg\u00e8rent que l'efficacit\u00e9 m\u00eame de la g\u00e9oing\u00e9nierie solaire aurait ses limites. Si nos \u00e9missions de gaz \u00e0 effet de serre ne ralentissent pas, les concentrations dans l'atmosph\u00e8re pourraient atteindre un niveau tel qu'elles rendraient les stratocumulus plus fins, finissant par les \u00e9liminer, m\u00eame en pr\u00e9sence de g\u00e9oing\u00e9nierie solaire. Or sans cette couverture nuageuse, l'injection de particules dans la stratosph\u00e8re perdrait tout son int\u00e9r\u00eat.\u003Ci\u003E\"Il n'y a pas plus de plan B pour le climat que de plan\u00e8te B\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ci\u003E\u00ab Cela fait un si\u00e8cle, maintenant, que nous avons engag\u00e9 une exp\u00e9rience qui peut \u00eatre qualifi\u00e9e de g\u00e9oing\u00e9nierie. Dans laquelle les Hommes modifient le climat \u00e0 grande \u00e9chelle ? Mais cette exp\u00e9rience-l\u00e0 n'est absolument pas d\u00e9lib\u00e9r\u00e9e.\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cblockquote\u003E\u003Ci\u003ECe dont nous parlons ici, c'est d'intervenir de mani\u00e8re intentionnelle sur le climat \u00e0 l'\u00e9chelle globale. De l'autre c\u00f4t\u00e9 de l'Atlantique, des soci\u00e9t\u00e9s priv\u00e9es travaillent d\u00e9j\u00e0 \u00e0 d\u00e9velopper les techniques de l'injection de soufre dans la stratosph\u00e8re.\u003C\/i\u003E \u003C\/blockquote\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ci\u003EMais nous pouvons tourner le probl\u00e8me dans tous les sens. Nous ne pouvons pas \u00e9viter de r\u00e9duire nos \u00e9missions de CO2. Et quand je dis r\u00e9duire, je veux dire de mani\u00e8re agressive. Pas de la mani\u00e8re marginale dont nous le faisons actuellement. Parce qu'en r\u00e9alit\u00e9 soyez-en s\u00fbr : il n'y a pas plus de plan B pour le climat que de \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/breves\/terre-pas-planete-b-message-astronaute-iss-terre-272\"\u003Eplan\u00e8te B\u003C\/a\u003E. \u00bb\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ENathalie Mayer\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.futura-sciences.com\/planete\/actualites\/rechauffement-climatique-injection-soufre-atmosphere-va-t-elle-nous-sauver-rechauffement-climatique-84706\"\u003Efutura-sciences.com\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EFirst sun-dimming experiment will test a way to cool Earth. Nature\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EResearchers plan to spray sunlight-reflecting particles into the stratosphere, an approach that could ultimately be used to quickly lower the planet's temperature.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/lilianeheldkhawam.com\/;\"\u003EJeff Tollefson\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cfigure\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"http:\/\/newsnet.fr\/\/img\/newsnet_184054_f12de7.jpg\" \/\u003E\u003Cfigcaption\u003EFrank Keutsch, Zhen Dai and David Keith (left to right) in Keutsch's laboratory at Harvard University.Credit: Kayana Szymczak for \u003Ci\u003ENature\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/figcaption\u003E\u003C\/figure\u003E\u003Cp\u003EZhen Dai holds up a small glass tube coated with a white powder: calcium carbonate, a ubiquitous compound used in everything from paper and cement to toothpaste and cake mixes. Plop a tablet of it into water, and the result is a fizzy antacid that calms the stomach. The question for Dai, a doctoral candidate at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and her colleagues is whether this innocuous substance could also help humanity to relieve the ultimate case of indigestion: global warming caused by greenhouse-gas pollution.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe idea is simple: spray a bunch of particles into the stratosphere, and they will cool the planet by reflecting some of the Sun's rays back into space. Scientists have already witnessed the principle in action. When Mount Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines in 1991, it injected an estimated 20 million tonnes of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere - the atmospheric layer that stretches from about 10 to 50 kilometres above Earth's surface. The eruption created a haze of sulfate particles that cooled the planet by around 0.5 \u00b0C. For about 18 months, Earth's average temperature returned to what it was before the arrival of the steam engine.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe idea that humans might turn down Earth's thermostat by similar, artificial means is several decades old. It fits into a broader class of planet-cooling schemes known as geoengineering that have long generated intense debate and, in some cases, fear.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EResearchers have largely restricted their work on such tactics to computer models. Among the concerns is that dimming the Sun could backfire, or at least strongly disadvantage some areas of the world by, for example, robbing crops of sunlight and shifting rain patterns.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBut as emissions continue to rise and climate projections remain dire, conversations about geoengineering research are starting to gain more traction among scientists, policymakers and some environmentalists. That's because many researchers have come to the alarming conclusion that the only way to prevent the severe impacts of global warming will be either to suck massive amounts of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere or to cool the planet artificially. Or, perhaps more likely, both.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIf all goes as planned, the Harvard team will be the first in the world to move solar geoengineering out of the lab and into the stratosphere, with a project called the Stratospheric Controlled Perturbation Experiment (SCoPEx). The first phase - a US$3-million test involving two flights of a steerable balloon 20 kilometres above the southwest United States - could launch as early as the first half of 2019. Once in place, the experiment would release small plumes of calcium carbonate, each of around 100 grams, roughly equivalent to the amount found in an average bottle of off-the-shelf antacid. The balloon would then turn around to observe how the particles disperse.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe test itself is extremely modest. Dai, whose doctoral work over the past four years has involved building a tabletop device to simulate and measure chemical reactions in the stratosphere in advance of the experiment, does not stress about concerns over such research. \"I'm studying a chemical substance,\" she says. \"It's not like it's a nuclear bomb.\"\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ENevertheless, the experiment will be the first to fly under \u003Cb\u003Ethe banner of solar geoengineering.\u003C\/b\u003E And so it is under intense scrutiny, including from some environmental groups, who say such efforts are a dangerous distraction from addressing the only permanent solution to climate change: reducing greenhouse-gas emissions. The scientific outcome of SCoPEx doesn't really matter, says Jim Thomas, co-executive director of the ETC Group, an environmental advocacy organization in Val-David, near Montreal, Canada, that opposes geoengineering: \"This is as much an experiment in changing social norms and crossing a line as it is a science experiment.\"\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAware of this attention, the team is moving slowly and is working to set up clear oversight for the experiment, in the form of an external advisory committee to review the project. Some say that such a framework, which could pave the way for future experiments, is even more important than the results of this one test. \"SCoPEx is the first out of the gate, and it is triggering an important conversation about what independent guidance, advice and oversight should look like,\" says Peter Frumhoff, chief climate scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and a member of an independent panel that has been charged with selecting the head of the advisory committee. \"Getting it done right is far more important than getting it done quickly.\"\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EJoining forces\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn many ways, the stratosphere is an ideal place to try to make the atmosphere more reflective. Small particles injected there can spread around the globe and stay aloft for two years or more. If placed strategically and regularly in both hemispheres, they could create a relatively uniform blanket that would shield the entire planet (see 'Global intervention'). The process does not have to be wildly expensive; in a report last month, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggested that a fleet of high-flying aircraft could deposit enough sulfur to offset roughly 1.5 \u00b0C of warming for around $1 billion to $10 billion per year \u003Csup\u003E\u003Ca href=\"#nbCR1\" name=\"nhCR1\"\u003ECR1\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/sup\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cfigure\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"http:\/\/newsnet.fr\/\/img\/newsnet_184054_365abf.png\" \/\u003E\u003Cfigcaption\u003EPaul Jackman\/\u003Ci\u003ENature\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/figcaption\u003E\u003C\/figure\u003E\u003Cp\u003EMost of the solar geoengineering research so far has focused on sulfur dioxide, the same substance released by Mount Pinatubo. But sulfur might not be the best candidate. In addition to cooling the planet, the aerosols generated in that eruption sped up the rate at which chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer, which shields the planet from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. Sulfate aerosols are also warmed by the Sun, enough to potentially affect the movement of moisture and even alter the jet stream. \"There are all of these downstream effects that we don't fully understand,\" says Frank Keutsch, an atmospheric chemist at Harvard and SCoPEx's principal investigator.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe SCoPEx team's initial stratospheric experiments \u003Cb\u003Ewil\u003C\/b\u003El focus on calcium carbonate, which is expected to absorb less heat than sulfates and to have less impact on ozone. But textbook answers - and even Dai's tabletop device - can't capture the full picture. \"We actually don't know what it would do, because it doesn't exist in the stratosphere,\" Keutsch says. \"That sets up a red flag.\"\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ESCoPEx aims to gather real-world data to sort this out. The experiment began as a partnership between atmospheric chemist James Anderson of Harvard and experimental physicist David Keith, who moved to the university in 2011. Keith has been investigating a variety of geoengineering options off and on for more than 25 years. In 2009, while at the University of Calgary in Canada, he founded the company Carbon Engineering, in Squamish, which is working to commercialize technology to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cblockquote\u003E\u003Cb\u003EAfter joining Harvard, Keith used research funding he had received from Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates, to begin planning the experiment.\u003C\/b\u003E\u003C\/blockquote\u003E\u003Cp\u003EKeutsch, who got involved later, is not a climate scientist and is at best a reluctant geoengineer. But he worries about where humanity is heading, and what that means for his children's future. When he saw Keith talk about the SCoPEx idea at a conference after starting at Harvard in 2015, he says his initial reaction was that the idea was \"totally insane\". Then he decided it was time to engage. \"I asked myself, an atmospheric chemist, what can I do?\" He joined forces with Keith and Anderson, and has since taken the lead on the experimental work.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAn eye on the sky\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAlready, SCoPEx has moved farther along than earlier solar geoengineering efforts. The UK Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering experiment, which sought to spray water 1 kilometre into the atmosphere, was cancelled in 2012 in part because scientists had applied for patents on an apparatus that could ultimately affect every human on the planet. (Keith says there will be no patents on any technologies involved in the SCoPEx project.) And US researchers with the Marine Cloud Brightening Project, which aims to spray saltwater droplets into the lower atmosphere to increase the reflectivity of ocean clouds, have been trying to raise money for the project for nearly a decade.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cfigure\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"http:\/\/newsnet.fr\/\/img\/newsnet_184054_1f3ce8.jpg\" \/\u003E\u003Cfigcaption\u003EAn environmental chamber to test instruments used in the SCoPEx field mission.Credit: Kayana Szymczak for \u003Ci\u003ENature\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/figcaption\u003E\u003C\/figure\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAlthough SCoPEx could be the first solar geoengineering experiment to fly, Keith says other projects that have not branded themselves as such have already provided useful data. In 2011, for example, the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment pumped smoke into the lower atmosphere to mimic pollution from ships, which can cause clouds to brighten by capturing more water vapour. The test was used to study the effect on marine clouds, but the results had a direct bearing on geoengineering science: the brighter clouds produced a cooling effect 50 times greater than the warming effect of the carbon emissions from the researchers'ship \u003Csup\u003E\u003Ca href=\"#nbCR2\" name=\"nhCR2\"\u003ECR2\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/sup\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EKeith says that the Harvard team has yet to encounter public protests or any direct opposition - aside from the occasional conspiracy theorist. The challenge facing researchers, he says, stems more from a fear among science-funding agencies that investing in geoengineering will lead to protests by environmentalists.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ETo help advance the field, Keith set a goal in \u003Cb\u003E2016\u003C\/b\u003E of raising $20 million to support a formal research programme that would cover not just the experimental work, but also research into modelling, governance and ethics. \u003Cb\u003EHe has raised around $12 million so far, mostly from philanthropic sources such as Gates; the pot provides funding to dozens of people, largely on a part-time basis.\u003C\/b\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EKeith and Keutsch also want an external advisory committee to review SCoPEx before it flies. The committee, which is still to be selected, will report to the dean of engineering and the vice-provost for research at Harvard. \"We see this as part of a process to build broader support for research on this topic,\" Keith says.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EKeutsch is looking forward to having the guidance of an external group, and hopes that it can provide clarity on how tests such as his should proceed. \"This is a much more politically challenging experiment than I had anticipated,\" he says. \"I was a little naive.\"\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ESCoPEx faces technical challenges, too. It must spray particles of the right size: the team calculates that those with a diameter of about 0.5 micrometres should disperse and reflect sunlight well. The balloon must also be able to reverse its course in the thin air so that it can pass through its own wake. Assuming the team is able to find the calcium carbonate plume - and there is no guarantee that they can - SCoPEx needs instruments that can analyse the particles and, it is hoped, carry samples back to Earth.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\"It's going to be a hard experiment, and it may not work,\" says David Fahey, an atmospheric scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Boulder, Colorado. In the hope that it will, Fahey's team has provided SCoPEx with a lightweight instrument that can reliably measure the size and number of particles that are released. The balloon will also be equipped with a laser device that can monitor the plume from afar. Other equipment that could collect information on the level of moisture and ozone in the stratosphere could fly on the balloon as well.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EUp to the stratosphere\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EKeutsch and Keith are still working out some of the technical details. Plans with one balloon company fell through, so they are now working with a second. And an independent team of engineers in California is working on options for the sprayer. To simplify things, the SCoPEx group plans to fly the balloon during the spring or autumn, when stratospheric winds shift direction and - for a brief period - calm down, which will make it easier to track the plume.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EFor all of these reasons, Keutsch characterizes the first flight as an engineering test, mainly intended to demonstrate that everything works as it should. The team is ready to spray calcium carbonate particles, but could instead use salt water to test the sprayer if the advisory committee objects.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EKeith still thinks that sulfate aerosols might ultimately be the best choice for solar geoengineering, if only because there has been more research about their impact. He says that the possibility of sulfates enhancing ozone depletion should become less of a concern in the future, as efforts to restore the ozone layer through pollutant reductions continue. Nevertheless, his main hope is to establish an experimental programme in which scientists can explore different aspects of solar geoengineering.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThere are a lot of outstanding questions. Some researchers have suggested that solar geoengineering could alter precipitation patterns and even lead to more droughts in some regions. Others warn that one of the possible benefits of solar geoengineering - maintaining crop yields by protecting them from heat stress - might not come to pass. In a study published in August, researchers found that yields of maize (corn), soya, rice and wheat \u003Csup\u003E\u003Ca href=\"#nbCR3\" name=\"nhCR3\"\u003ECR3\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/sup\u003E fell after two volcanic eruptions, Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and El Chich\u00f3n in Mexico in 1982, dimmed the skies. Such reductions could be enough to cancel out any potential gains in the future.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EKeith says the science so far suggests that the benefits could well outweigh the potential negative consequences, particularly compared with a world in which warming goes unchecked. The commonly cited drawback is that shielding the Sun doesn't affect emissions, so greenhouse-gas levels would continue to rise and the ocean would grow even more acidic. But he suggests that solar geoengineering could reduce the amount of carbon that would otherwise end up in the atmosphere, including by minimizing the loss of permafrost, promoting forest growth and reducing the need to cool buildings. In an as-yet-unpublished analysis of precipitation and temperature extremes using a high-resolution climate model, Keith and others found that nearly all regions of the world would benefit from a moderate solar geoengineering programme. \"Despite all of the concerns, we can't find any areas that would be definitely worse off,\" he says. \"If solar geoengineering is as good as what is shown in these models, it would be crazy not to take it seriously.\"\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThere is still widespread uncertainty about the state of the science and the assumptions in the models - including the idea that humanity could come together to establish, maintain and then eventually dismantle a well-designed geoengineering programme while tackling the underlying problem of emissions. Still, prominent organizations, including the UK Royal Society and the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, have called for more research. In October, the academies launched a project that will attempt to provide a blueprint for such a programme.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ESome organizations are already trying to promote discussions among policymakers and government officials at the international level. The Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative is holding workshops across the global south, for instance. And Janos Pasztor, who handled climate issues under former UN secretary-general Ban Ki-moon, has been talking to high-level government officials around the world in his role as head of the Carnegie Climate Geoengineering Governance Initiative, a non-profit organization based in New York. \"Governments need to engage in this discussion and to understand these issues,\" Pasztor says. \"They need to understand the risks - not just the risks of doing it, but also the risks of not understanding and not knowing.\"\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EOne concern is that governments might one day panic over the consequences of global warming and rush forward with a haphazard solar-geoengineering programme, a distinct possibility given that the costs are cheap enough that many countries, and perhaps even a few individuals, could probably afford to go it alone. These and other questions arose earlier this month in Quito, Ecuador, at the annual summit of the Montreal Protocol, which governs chemicals that damage the stratospheric ozone layer. Several countries called for a scientific assessment of the potential effects that solar geoengineering could have on the ozone layer, and on the stratosphere more broadly.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIf the world gets serious about geoengineering, Fahey says that there are plenty of sophisticated experiments that researchers could do using satellites and high-flying aircraft. But for now, he says, SCoPEx will be valuable - if only because it pushes the conversation forward. \"Not talking about geoengineering is the greatest mistake we can make right now.\"\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Col\u003E\u003Cli\u003E1.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. \u003Ci\u003EGlobal Warming of 1.5 \u00b0C\u003C\/i\u003E (IPCC, 2018).\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E2.Russell, L. M. \u003Ci\u003Eet al. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.\u003C\/i\u003E \u003Cb\u003E94\u003C\/b\u003E, 709-729 (2013).\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E3.Proctor, J., Hsiang, S., Burney, J., Burke, M. & Schlenker, W. \u003Ci\u003ENature\u003C\/i\u003E \u003Cb\u003E560\u003C\/b\u003E, 480-483 (2018)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003C\/ol\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003Eh\u003Cb\u003Ettps:\/\/www.nature.com\/articles\/d41586-018-07533-4\u003C\/b\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBill Gates backs climate scientists lobbying for large-scale geoengineering\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThis article is more than 8 years oldOther wealthy individuals have also funded a series of reports into the future use of technologies to geoengineer the climate\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E• \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.guardian.co.uk\/environment\/2011\/feb\/18\/geo-engineering\"\u003EWhat is geo-engineering?\u003C\/a\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n• \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.guardian.co.uk\/environment\/2011\/nov\/17\/scientists-criticise-project-geoengineer-climate\"\u003EScientists criticise handling of geoengineering pilot project\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"http:\/\/newsnet.fr\/\/img\/newsnet_184054_2eebaa.jpg\" \/\u003E\u003Cblockquote\u003E\u003Cb\u003EThe billionaire philanthropist Bill Gates is backing a group of climate scientists lobbying for geoengineering experiments.\u003C\/b\u003E\u003Cp\u003EPhotograph: Ted S. Warren\/AP \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.theguardian.com\/profile\/johnvidal\"\u003EJohn Vidal\u003C\/a\u003E, environment editiorMon \u003Cb\u003E6 Feb 2012\u003C\/b\u003E 10.18 GMT\u003C\/blockquote\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EA small group of leading climate scientists, financially supported by billionaires including \u003Cspan id=\"btbe7d2d\"\u003E\u003Ca onclick=\"togglebub('app__be7d2d_wiki_call_http(ddot)(slash)(slash)en(dot)wikipedia(dot)org(slash)wiki(slash)Bill*Gates_1')\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-wiki2\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Bill_Gates\"\u003EBill Gates\u003C\/a\u003E, are lobbying governments and international bodies to back experiments into manipulating the climate on a global scale to avoid catastrophic climate change.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe scientists, who advocate geoengineering methods such as spraying millions of tonnes of reflective particles of sulphur dioxide 30 miles above earth, argue that a \u00ab plan B \u00bb for climate change will be needed if the UN and politicians cannot agree to making the necessary cuts in greenhouse gases, and say the US government and others should pay for a major programme of international research.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ESolar geoengineering techniques are highly controversial: while some climate scientists believe they may prove a quick and relatively cheap way to slow global warming, others fear that when conducted in the upper atmosphere, they could irrevocably alter rainfall patterns and interfere with the earth's climate.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EGeoengineering is opposed by many environmentalists, who say the technology could undermine efforts to reduce emissions, and by developing countries who fear it could be used as a weapon or by rich countries to their advantage. In 2010, the \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.cbd.int\/climate\/geoengineering\"\u003EUN Convention on Biological Diversity declared a moratorium\u003C\/a\u003E on experiments in the sea and space, \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.newscientist.com\/article\/dn19660-what-the-un-ban-on-geoengineering-really-means.html\"\u003Eexcept for small-scale scientific studies\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EConcern is now growing that the small but influential group of scientists, and their backers, may have a disproportionate effect on major decisions about geoengineering research and policy.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u00ab We will need to protect ourselves from vested interests [and] be sure that choices are not influenced by parties who might make significant amounts of money through a choice to modify climate, especially using proprietary intellectual property, \u00bb said Jane Long, director at large for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the US, in a paper delivered to a recent geoengineering conference on ethics.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u00ab The stakes are very high and scientists are not the best people to deal with the social, ethical or political issues that geoengineering raises, \u00bb said Doug Parr, chief scientist at Greenpeace. \u00ab The idea that a self-selected group should have so much influence is bizarre. \u00bb\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EPressure to find a quick technological fix to climate change is growing as politicians fail to reach an agreement to significantly reduce emissions. In 2009-2010, the \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.gao.gov\/products\/GAO-10-903\"\u003EUS government received requests for over $2bn\u003C\/a\u003E(\u00a31.2bn) of grants for geoengineering research, but spent around $100m.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAs well as Gates, other wealthy individuals including Sir \u003Cspan id=\"bt181459\"\u003E\u003Ca onclick=\"togglebub('app__181459_wiki_call_http(ddot)(slash)(slash)en(dot)wikipedia(dot)org(slash)wiki(slash)Richard*Branson_1')\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-wiki2\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Richard_Branson\"\u003ERichard Branson\u003C\/a\u003E, tar sands magnate \u003Cspan id=\"bt519558\"\u003E\u003Ca onclick=\"togglebub('app__519558_wiki_call_http(ddot)(slash)(slash)en(dot)wikipedia(dot)org(slash)wiki(slash)N(dot)*Murray*Edwards_1')\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-wiki2\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/N._Murray_Edwards\"\u003EMurray Edwards\u003C\/a\u003E and the co-founder of Skype, Niklas Zennstr\u00f6m, have funded a series of official reports into future use of the technology. Branson, who has frequently called for geoengineering to combat climate change, helped fund the Royal Society's inquiry into solar radiation management last year through his \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.carbonwarroom.com\"\u003ECarbon War Room\u003C\/a\u003E charity. It is not known how much he contributed.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EProfessors \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/people.ucalgary.ca\/~keith\"\u003EDavid Keith\u003C\/a\u003E, of Harvard University, and \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/dge.stanford.edu\/labs\/caldeiralab\/Caldeira%20downloads\/cv_caldeira.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EKen Caldeira\u003C\/a\u003E of Stanford, [see footnote] are the world's two leading advocates of major research into geoengineering the upper atmosphere to provide earth with a reflective shield. They have so far received over $4.6m from Gates to run the \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/keith.seas.harvard.edu\/FICER.html\"\u003EFund for Innovative Climate and Energy Research\u003C\/a\u003E (Ficer). Nearly half Ficer's money, which comes directly from Gates's personal funds, has so far been used for their own research, but the rest is disbursed by them to fund the work of other advocates of large-scale interventions.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAccording to statements of financial interests, Keith receives an undisclosed sum from Bill Gates each year, and is the president and majority owner of the geoengineering company \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.carbonengineering.com\"\u003ECarbon Engineering\u003C\/a\u003E, in which both Gates and Edwards have major stakes - believed to be together worth over $10m.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAnother Edwards company, Canadian Natural Resources, has plans to spend $25bn to turn the bitumen-bearing sand found in northern Alberta into barrels of crude oil. Caldeira says he receives $375,000 a year from Gates, holds a carbon capture patent and works for \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/intellectualventureslab.com\/?page_id=258\"\u003EIntellectual Ventures\u003C\/a\u003E, a private geoegineering research company part-owned by Gates and run by Nathan Myhrvold, former head of technology at Microsoft.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAccording to the latest Ficer accounts, the two scientists have so far given $300,000 of Gates money to part-fund three prominent reviews and assessments of geoengineering - the \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.srmgi.org\"\u003EUK Royal Society report on Solar Radiation Management\u003C\/a\u003E, \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.bipartisanpolicy.org\/projects\/task-force-geoengineering\/about\"\u003Ethe US Taskforce on Geoengineering\u003C\/a\u003E and a 2009 \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/arxiv.org\/pdf\/0907.5140\"\u003Ereport by Novin\u003C\/a\u003E a science thinktank based in Santa Barbara, California. Keith and Caldeira either sat on the panels that produced the reports or contributed evidence. All three reports strongly recommended more research into solar radiation management.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe fund also gave $600,000 to Phil Rasch, chief climate scientist for the \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.pnl.gov\"\u003EPacific Northwest national laboratory\u003C\/a\u003E, one of 10 research institutions funded by the US energy department.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ERasch gave evidence at the first Royal Society \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/royalsociety.org\/uploadedFiles\/Royal_Society_Content\/policy\/publications\/2009\/8693.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003Ereport on geoengineering 2009\u003C\/a\u003E and was a panel member on the 2011 report. He has testified to the US Congress about the need for government funding of large-scale geoengineering. In addition, Caldeira and Keith gave a further $240,000 to geoengineering advocates to travel and attend workshops and meetings and $100,000 to Jay Apt, a prominent advocate of geoengineering as a last resort, and professor of engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. Apt worked with Keith and \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/aurora.aero\"\u003EAurora Flight Sciences\u003C\/a\u003E, a US company that develops drone aircraft technology for the US military, to \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/people.ucalgary.ca\/~keith\/Misc\/AuroraGeoReport.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003Estudy the costs of sending 1m tonnes of sulphate particles\u003C\/a\u003E into the upper atmosphere a year.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAnalysis of the eight major national and international inquiries into geoengineering over the past three years shows that Keith and Caldeira, Rasch and \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.epp.cmu.edu\/people\/bios\/morgan.html\"\u003EProf Granger Morgan\u003C\/a\u003E the head of department of engineering and public policy at Carnegie Mellon University where Keith works, have sat on seven panels, including one set up by the UN. Three other strong advocates of solar radiation geoengineering, including Rasch, have sat on national inquiries part-funded by Ficer.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u00ab There are clear conflicts of interest between many of the people involved in the debate, \u00bb said Diana Bronson, a researcher with Montreal-based geoengineering watchdog ETC.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u00ab What is really worrying is that the same small group working on high-risk technologies that will geoengineer the planet is also trying to engineer the discussion around international rules and regulations. We cannot put the fox in charge of the chicken coop. \u00bb\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u00ab The eco-clique are lobbying for a huge injection of public funds into geoengineering research. They dominate virtually every inquiry into geoengineering. They are present in almost all of the expert deliberations. They have been the leading advisers to parliamentary and congressional inquiries and their views will, in all likelihood, dominate the deliberations of the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as it grapples for the first time with the scientific and ethical tangle that is climate engineering, \u00bb said Clive Hamilton, professor of Public Ethics at the Australian National University, in a Guardian blog.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe scientists involved reject this notion. \u00ab Even the perception that [a small group of people has] illegitimate influence [is] very unhealthy for a technology which has extreme power over the world. The concerns that a small group [is] dominating the debate are legitimate, but things are not as they were, \u00bb said Keith. \u00ab It's changing as countries like India and China become involved. The era when my voice or that of a few was dominant is over. We need a very broad debate. \u00bb\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u00ab Every scientist has some conflict of interest, because we would all like to see more resources going to study things that we find interesting, \u00bb said Caldeira. \u00ab Do I have too much influence? I feel like I have too little. I have been calling for making CO2 emissions illegal for many years, but no one is listening to me. People who disagree with me might feel I have too much influence. The best way to reduce my influence is to have more public research funds available, so that our funds are in the noise. If the federal government played the role it should in this area, there would be no need for money from Gates.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u00ab Regarding my own patents, I have repeatedly stated that if any patent that I am on is ever used for the purposes of altering climate, then any proceeds that accrue to me for this use will be donated to nonprofit NGOs and charities. I have no expectation or interest in developing a personal revenue stream based upon the use of these patents for climate modification. \u00bb.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ERasch added: \u00ab I don't feel there is any conflict of interest. I don't lobby, work with patents or intellectual property, do classified research or work with for-profit companies. The research I do on geoengineering involves computer simulations and thinking about possible consequences. The Ficer foundation that has funded my research tries to be transparent in their activities, as do I. \u00bb\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E• This article was amended on 8 February 2012. The original stated that Phil Rasch worked for Intellectual Ventures. This has been corrected. This article was further amended on 13 February 2012. \u003Cb\u003EProf Caldeira has asked us to make clear that the fact that he advocates research into geoengineering does not mean he advocates geoengineering.\u003C\/b\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cb\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.theguardian.com\/environment\"\u003Etheguardian.com\u003C\/a\u003E\/2012\/feb\/06\/bill-gates-climate-scientists-geoengineering\u003C\/b\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ERAPPELS Visuel de l'AFP\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cfigure\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"http:\/\/newsnet.fr\/\/img\/newsnet_184054_a49155.jpg\" \/\u003E\u003Cfigcaption\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/lilianeheldkhawam.com\/2017\/10\/13\/nouveau-monde-la-geoingenierie-science-et-avenirafp\"\u003Elilianeheldkhawam.com\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/figcaption\u003E\u003C\/figure\u003E\u003Cp\u003EVid\u00e9o de G\u00e9oing\u00e9nierie\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/youtube.com\/watch?v=wKTX1d_ayaI\" target=\"_blank\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-chain\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E youtube\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/lilianeheldkhawam.com\/2021\/01\/10\/injecter-du-souffre-dans-la-stratosphere-les-millions-des-gates-en-action-compilation\/\"\u003Elilianeheldkhawam.com\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E"}}