{"167917":{"id":"167917","parent":"166904","time":"1579809929","url":"http:\/\/www.strategic-culture.org\/news\/2020\/01\/23\/what-trump-didnt-know-about-cultural-locations-in-iran\/","category":"USA","title":"What Trump Didn't Know About Cultural Locations in Iran","lead_image_url":"http:\/\/newsnet.fr\/img\/newsnet_167917_26718b.jpg","hub":"newsnet","url-explicit":"what-trump-didn-t-know-about-cultural-locations-in-iran","admin":"newsnet","views":"67","priority":"2","length":"11632","lang":"fr","content":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ci\u003E\u003Cb\u003EOccupying forces are required to protect numerous buildings and sites, says Colonel Ann Wright. Medical facilities are also protected, but economic sanctions are harming and killing citizens by other means.\u003C\/b\u003E\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ci\u003EAnn WRIGHT\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EPresident Donald Trump's comment about bombing 52 cultural sights of Iran if the Iranians retaliated against the U.S. assassination by killer drone of a top Iranian military officer was walked back the Secretary of Defense Mark Esper. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.huffpost.com\/entry\/mark-esper-iran-cultural-sites-war-crime_n_5e13e042e4b0843d36179c0c?guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly9zZWFyY2gueWFob28uY29tLw&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAALcPUUnEQkYRH7j3NEXNJxavssR6xqjrsrq2xDsKG3FBJuGyykZZrDpnnemCMF1Pp40ApyCnQauYqfzp8nLDfB4PtFrGiCPYA-oAI1d-YS3xZH03JE9txb5o_we__oueQhgb_LJqzxVVWUZ6PXjiGdC4jVErYTNVFP932QA-HMPT\"\u003E\"The U.S. will comply with the Law of Armed conflict\"\u003C\/a\u003E which forbids the destruction of cultural sites, Esper said.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EGeneral Qassem Soleimani was killed while reportedly on a \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/thegrayzone.com\/2020\/01\/06\/soleimani-peace-mission-assassinated-trump-lie-imminent-attacks\"\u003Ediplomatic mission to Iraq to discuss talks\u003C\/a\u003E with Saudi Arabia.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ETwo of Trump's senior advisers, Esper and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, are West Point colleagues. Pompeo graduating first in their class. They know very well from their cadet days that bombing cultural, religious and medical locations is a war crime. Esper spent 21 years in the U.S. Army and National Guard. Pompeo spent the minimum military obligation of five years after the free four years at West Point.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EBoth Esper and Pompeo were taught at West Point that the law of land warfare and the Geneva Conventions (as codified for them in Army Regulation 27-10, the Law of Land Warfare, also called the Law of Armed Conflict) specifically forbid the destruction of these types of buildings and sites. The unit positions of leadership each of the West Point graduates had in the military required them to train their troops in the Law of Land Warfare.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.defense.gov\/Our-Story\/Biographies\/Biography\/Article\/1378166\/dr-mark-t-esper\"\u003EEsper was a Ranger and Pathfinder\u003C\/a\u003E serving in the 101st Airborne Division, in the 1990-91 Gulf War with the \"Screaming Eagles,\" and commanded a Rifle Company in the 3-325 Airborne Battalion Combat Team in Vicenza, Italy.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EFollowing his graduation from West Point in 1986, Pompeo served as an \u003Cspan id=\"bte5c547\"\u003E\u003Ca onclick=\"togglebub('app__e5c547_wiki_call_https(ddot)(slash)(slash)en(dot)wikipedia(dot)org(slash)wiki(slash)Mike*Pompeo_1')\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-wiki2\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Mike_Pompeo\"\u003Earmor officer in West Germany\u003C\/a\u003E along the border with East Germany from 1986-1991 with the 7\u003Csup\u003Eth\u003C\/sup\u003E Cavalry in the 4\u003Csup\u003Eth\u003C\/sup\u003E Infantry Division. He also was a tank platoon leader before becoming the cavalry troop executive officer and then a squadron maintenance officer. He left the U.S. Army as a captain. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/qz.com\/1258418\/mike-pompeos-gulf-war-service-lie-started-on-wikipedia\"\u003EHe did not serve in the tank-heavy Gulf War 1\u003C\/a\u003E, although it was posited by fellow members of Congress that he did.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"http:\/\/newsnet.fr\/\/img\/newsnet_167917_f7a4bc.jpg\" \/\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ci\u003EU.S. Secretary of State Michael Pompeo, left, and U.S. Secretary of Defense Esper in Sydney, August, 2019. (State Department\/ Ron Przysucha)\u003C\/i\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cb\u003EReagan-Era Contingency Planning\u003C\/b\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EFrom 1982-1984, I taught the Law of Land Warfare at the JFK Special Warfare Center's School of International Studies at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. From 1985-87 I was the executive officer of the 96\u003Csup\u003Eth\u003C\/sup\u003E Civil Affairs Battalion, a part of the U.S. Army's Special Operations Command. Other members of this battalion and I were charged with writing the Civil-Military Operations annex to contingency plans that Special Operations Command units and the 18\u003Csup\u003Eth\u003C\/sup\u003E Airborne Corps were involved in. One of those plans was a contingency plan for Iran.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EReviewing history reveals the basis for the contingency plan. In January 1979 the \u003Cspan id=\"bt99c68d\"\u003E\u003Ca onclick=\"togglebub('app__99c68d_wiki_call_https(ddot)(slash)(slash)en(dot)wikipedia(dot)org(slash)wiki(slash)Iranian*Revolution_1')\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-wiki2\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Iranian_Revolution\"\u003EIran Revolution overthrew the Shah of Iran\u003C\/a\u003E whom the U.S. installed after the \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.npr.org\/2019\/01\/31\/690363402\/how-the-cia-overthrew-irans-democracy-in-four-days\"\u003ECIA orchestrated coup in 1953\u003C\/a\u003E that ousted the elected Prime Minister Mossadegh. Ten months later, in December 1979, the \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.britannica.com\/event\/Soviet-invasion-of-Afghanistan\"\u003ESoviet Union invaded Iran's neighbor, Afghanistan\u003C\/a\u003E. Nine months later and 18 months after the Iranian Revolution, in September 1980, Saddam Hussein and the Iraqi military took advantage of the new revolution next door and began a war on Iran.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EFor President Jimmy Carter's administration, 1979 and 1980s were momentous years. Not only had there been a revolution in Iran with 52 U.S. diplomats taken hostage for 444 days, a Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, but in the Western Hemisphere, in March 1979 the \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.jacobinmag.com\/2019\/09\/grenada-revolution-maurice-bishop-reagan\"\u003EPeople's Revolution in Grenada overthrew\u003C\/a\u003E the repressive Grenadian President Sir Eric Gairy and in July 1979 the \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.britannica.com\/topic\/Sandinista\"\u003ESandinista Revolution in Nicaragua\u003C\/a\u003E overthrew the U.S. supported 30-year dictator Anastasio Somoza.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAfter defeating Carter in the November 1980 U.S. presidential election, Ronald Reagan came into power in January 1981 and ordered planning to begin for a confrontation with the Soviets over their invasion of Afghanistan. This included providing Stinger missiles to the Afghan resistance and to support the Iraqi military's attack on revolutionary Iran, including \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/fas.org\/irp\/congress\/2002_cr\/s092002.html\"\u003Efurnishing chemical and biological agents\u003C\/a\u003E to Iraq and giving a green light to Saddam to use nerve gas and chemical weapons on Iran.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cb\u003EMapping Iran, City by City\u003C\/b\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EOur job for the Civil-Military annex to the contingency plans for Iran was to identify Iranian cultural locations and structures that should be protected by international law by occupying forces as required by the Laws of Armed Conflict. While I don't remember all of the locations, I know we went city-by-city on a map of Iran and checked encyclopedias and tourist books to find cultural, religious and medical structures and well-known historic sites.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"http:\/\/newsnet.fr\/\/img\/newsnet_167917_96dc97.jpg\" \/\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAt the time in the 1980s when we were putting together the annex, only three sites in Iran, Persepolis, Meidan Emam (Royal Square) in Esfahan and 1250 BC walls in Tchoghar Zanbil, were identified as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. We definitely put them on the protect list.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003ENow almost four decades later, \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/statesparties\/ir\"\u003E24 locations in Iran are UNESCO World Heritage Sites\u003C\/a\u003E, 22 of which are cultural sites many of which are thousands of years old, and two are natural sites. For comparison, the \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/statesparties\/us\"\u003EUnited States has 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites\u003C\/a\u003E; 11 cultural sites including the Statue of Liberty, Independence Hall and San Antonio missions, none of which are more than 400 years old; and 13 natural sites, all national parks.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"http:\/\/newsnet.fr\/\/img\/newsnet_167917_8588c3.jpg\" \/\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe 24 sites in Iran that must be protected from destruction and the dates they were declared World Heritage sites are:\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cb\u003ECultural (22)\u003C\/b\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cul\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1262\"\u003EArmenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran\u003C\/a\u003E (2008)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1208\"\u003EBam and its Cultural Landscape\u003C\/a\u003E (2004)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1222\"\u003EBisotun\u003C\/a\u003E (2006)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1423\"\u003ECultural Landscape of Maymand\u003C\/a\u003E (2015)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1422\"\u003EGolestan Palace\u003C\/a\u003E (2013)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1398\"\u003EGonbad-e Qabus\u003C\/a\u003E (2012)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1544\"\u003EHistoric City of Yazd\u003C\/a\u003E (2017)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1397\"\u003EMasjed-e Jam\u00e9 of Isfahan\u003C\/a\u003E (2012)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/115\"\u003EMeidan Emam, Esfahan\u003C\/a\u003E (1979)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1106\"\u003EPasargadae\u003C\/a\u003E (2004)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/114\"\u003EPersepolis\u003C\/a\u003E (1979)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1568\"\u003ESassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region\u003C\/a\u003E (2018)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1456\"\u003EShahr-i Sokhta\u003C\/a\u003E (2014)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1345\"\u003ESheikh Safi al-din Khanegah and Shrine Ensemble in Ardabil\u003C\/a\u003E (2010)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1315\"\u003EShushtar Historical Hydraulic System\u003C\/a\u003E (2009)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1188\"\u003ESoltaniyeh\u003C\/a\u003E (2005)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1455\"\u003ESusa\u003C\/a\u003E (2015)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1346\"\u003ETabriz Historic Bazaar Complex\u003C\/a\u003E (2010)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1077\"\u003ETakht-e Soleyman\u003C\/a\u003E (2003)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/113\"\u003ETchogha Zanbil\u003C\/a\u003E (1979)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1372\"\u003EThe Persian Garden\u003C\/a\u003E (2011)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1506\"\u003EThe Persian Qanat\u003C\/a\u003E (2016)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003C\/ul\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cb\u003ENatural (2)\u003C\/b\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cul\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1584\"\u003EHyrcanian Forests\u003C\/a\u003E (2019)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003Cli\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/whc.unesco.org\/en\/list\/1505\"\u003ELut Desert\u003C\/a\u003E (2016)\u003C\/li\u003E\u003C\/ul\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EAdditionally, current-day military planners must consider many other cultural sites for protection in the major cities of the 81-million-citizen country Iran.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIran is the world's \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.cia.gov\/library\/publications\/the-world-factbook\/rankorder\/2147rank.html\"\u003E18th largest country by area\u003C\/a\u003E, and the world's \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/worldpopulationreview.com\/countries\/iran-population\/cities\"\u003E17th largest country by population\u003C\/a\u003E. The largest city, \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/worldpopulationreview.com\/world-cities\/tehran-population\"\u003ETehran\u003C\/a\u003E, has a \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/worldpopulationreview.com\/world-cities\"\u003Epopulation of 9.1 million\u003C\/a\u003E. Iran's second largest city, Mashed, has over 2 million inhabitants, and four other cities have populations over a million. There are 61 cities with populations of more than 100,000 inhabitants.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIn contrast, the \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/worldpopulationreview.com\/us-cities\"\u003EUnited States with 320 million residents has 10 cities\u003C\/a\u003E with over 1 million population. New York City, the largest city in the U.S. with \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/worldpopulationreview.com\/world-cities\"\u003E8.6 million inhabitants\u003C\/a\u003E, is smaller than Tehran.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIran borders Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and Turkmenistan. It shares maritime borders with Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Iran is almost three times the size of France and a little smaller than Alaska.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cimg src=\"http:\/\/newsnet.fr\/\/img\/newsnet_167917_26718b.jpg\" \/\u003E\u003Cp\u003EIranians cities are filled with cultural, religious and medical facilities that must be protected. There are \u003Cspan id=\"bt5cf705\"\u003E\u003Ca onclick=\"togglebub('app__5cf705_wiki_call_https(ddot)(slash)(slash)en(dot)wikipedia(dot)org(slash)wiki(slash)List*of*museums*in*Iran_1')\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-wiki2\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/List_of_museums_in_Iran\"\u003E86 museums\u003C\/a\u003E, \u003Cspan id=\"bt81a0ed\"\u003E\u003Ca onclick=\"togglebub('app__81a0ed_wiki_call_https(ddot)(slash)(slash)en(dot)wikipedia(dot)org(slash)wiki(slash)List*of*mosques*in*Iran_1')\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-wiki2\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/List_of_mosques_in_Iran\"\u003E47,291 Shiite mosques and 10,344 Sunni mosques in Iran\u003C\/a\u003E, \u003Cspan id=\"bt3b572d\"\u003E\u003Ca onclick=\"togglebub('app__3b572d_wiki_call_https(ddot)(slash)(slash)en(dot)wikipedia(dot)org(slash)wiki(slash)List*of*synagogues*in*Iran_1')\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-wiki2\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/List_of_synagogues_in_Iran\"\u003E65 synagogues\u003C\/a\u003E (34 in Tehran alone) and at least \u003Cspan id=\"btf0065e\"\u003E\u003Ca onclick=\"togglebub('app__f0065e_wiki_call_https(ddot)(slash)(slash)en(dot)wikipedia(dot)org(slash)wiki(slash)Christianity*in*Iran_1')\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-wiki2\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Christianity_in_Iran\"\u003E600 churches and 500,000\u003C\/a\u003E-1,000,000 Christians, including \u003Cspan id=\"btb832b5\"\u003E\u003Ca onclick=\"togglebub('app__b832b5_wiki_call_https(ddot)(slash)(slash)en(dot)wikipedia(dot)org(slash)wiki(slash)List*of*Armenian*churches*in*Iran_1')\"\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"philum ic-wiki2\"\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/List_of_Armenian_churches_in_Iran\"\u003E200 Armenian churches\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThere are large medical facilities in each major city in Iran, destruction of which is prohibited by international law. However, another type of medical destruction appears to be authorized by the international community.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003EThe U.S. and other UN-member countries have placed severe sanctions on Iran, which includes freezing financial assets that are used to purchase medical supplies and equipment. This is killing people in Iran. During a February 2019 citizens' trip to Iran, we spoke with several persons who, because of the sanctions, cannot receive treatment for certain kinds of tumors because either medicines or spare parts for medical equipment cannot be purchased on the international market due to these brutal sanctions.\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/consortiumnews.com\/2020\/01\/22\/what-trump-didnt-know-about-cultural-locations-in-iran\"\u003Econsortiumnews.com\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.strategic-culture.org\/news\/2020\/01\/23\/what-trump-didnt-know-about-cultural-locations-in-iran\/\"\u003Estrategic-culture.org\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E"}}